Pew Research already confirmed what most of us suspected: There seems to be a strong connection between being religiously and politically conservative.
I wrote an article on it, referencing the study, a few weeks ago. One important question about this fact is “WHY?” A book I recently released on Amazon, here, brings out factors that I think go quite a ways toward the answer. Here are a few paragraphs from the book that introduce a bit of that:
The Development of Thinking
It is obvious to most people that stages of cognitive development have a strong influence on religious beliefs. Is there perhaps a correlation between growing beyond a literalist view of the Bible and a natural developmental process? Almost anyone who has had a child has seen poignantly illustrated that earlier levels of cognitive development can be humorously concrete. Yet sometimes a child’s early intuitive grasp is startling.
It didn’t take my daughter long, for example, to understand the hierarchies of authority we set up. When she was only two, and big brother was five, one day he proposed some make-believe play: “Let’s play king and queen…. I’ll be king”. Never wanting to be one-down to her brother, without hesitation she shot back, “I’ll be God!”
Developmental Stages and Religious Beliefs
The main lesson here is that kids cannot grasp abstract concepts well. (In this example of my oh-so-brilliant daughter, I think her comment was astute but still concrete: God is defined as a higher authority than humans.) Children keep abstract concepts concrete and often quite specific. If they believe “Jesus is in my heart,” they seem to picture a tiny man literally residing inside their chest. This changes gradually as neuron growth, education and experience allows them to understand symbols in greater complexity along with things that have no close physical parallel (like God or Spirit). For most children the final gradual, slow transition to adult thinking begins around puberty when the brain’s hard-wiring is nearly complete. This is the “formal operations” stage which Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget documented in his studies of cognitive development.
Just because a child matures physically does not mean he or she will automatically learn to think well in abstract terms (that is, about complex or deep things). That depends on natural mental ability, which varies greatly, and on training in various types of thinking – being confronted with mental challenges, etc. My experience, with many others, makes clear that we also use our reasoning powers selectively. We often do this subconsciously. One form is being “in denial” – not perceiving or believing something because it is too painful or undesirable.
To make what is actually complex relatively simple for a moment, I’ll say this:
The last paragraph I think explains a lot: Conservative people, religiously and politically, are probably of the same general intelligence as their more liberal fellows. But they have been trained to use their reasoning in slightly different ways, and sometimes consciously reinforced that for various social or emotional benefits. In this way, they often have restricted the number of perspectives they can or are willing to take… a process which does make reasoning more complex and demanding, and not always with better results. But I would strongly argue that in most cases the results are better – more in line with reality, which itself often seems hopelessly complex for us humans.
What have you observed or experienced along these lines?
Are you taking a particular spiritual direction in life? Whether or not you’re involved formally in any religion?
In the book I’ve just released on Amazon Kindle as an ebook, found here, I discuss the ways we all make use of certain “maps”, as it were. These guide our beliefs and help form our priorities and our outlook on life and its many challenges.
Below is the concluding section, which could have served as an introduction as well. I titled it “Drawing Our Own Maps” because I’ve observed many times over how we all modify… personalize… either the framing belief system we grew up within or one we may have taken up later in life (or usually some combination). A key aspect of my message in Spiritual Growth: Live the Questions, Love the Journey, is that more advanced stages of our growth involve an increasingly conscious choosing of what is worthy of our mental belief as well as our emotional trust. And yes, that implies some focused effort on our part.
Drawing Our Own Maps
We don’t have the option of waiting for a comparison of road maps (worldviews and theologies) before starting our spiritual journeys in life. During childhood we all learn to view things (actual visual and other perceptions) primarily from and through the worldviews of our family, culture and sub-culture. Once we gain the brain maturity, the independence and access to resources of adolescence and adulthood, most of us take a second (or third) and deeper look. We begin to compare and more deliberately choose the maps which outline at least the main thoroughfares we will travel and the sights/sites we will explore. Most adults, at least the growing ones, never stop examining maps – ones of different styles and varying levels of detail.
I find this all an exciting adventure and I hope you do too! Yes, there are points of challenge and sometimes deep frustration and hurt. This may push you along faster or you may need to pull back for a time from active exploration at such points. But staying withdrawn is not really an option, and once your head and your heart are back into the journey, you will again find fellow-travelers. Some will need to learn from what you have been through. Expect that and be willing to share and support however you can…. That itself is a vital part of the journey!
Ever curious about how and why we come to see and believe things differently over time? How sometimes we seem stuck and occasionally we have a massive shift?
My just-released ebook on the process of learning, living and growing is free on Amazon today and tomorrow.
Whether you like understanding yourself and your own growth processes better or have responsibility to help guide others who seek spiritual and whole-life direction, I believe you’ll find some insights here. This short excerpt lays out some of the issues and often strong feelings involved at transitional points in our life journey, involving our inner and our social lives, intertwined as they are:
Susan’s example reminds us that children are vulnerable not only on a physical or emotional level but also on a spiritual one which interplays heavily with emotions at this age that often carry into adulthood as well. Her situation presents us with several elements of spiritual development which we will deal with in this book:
Transitions are often linked with age, especially as the brain matures in late adolescence, but they can be connected to or triggered by a variety of circumstances which are very often social in nature.
Transitions can be both liberating and fraught with emotional and interpersonal turmoil and mental confusion.
The support and guidance of more mature people who have successfully navigated some or all of the pitfalls can be invaluable and it also gives them a sense of purpose and value to be able to help.
Intellectual doubts (questioning a belief system) are often triggered by social situations or by tragedy and grief; however in the other direction, more “pure” intellectual questions often trigger social struggles within a family or a church – and the battles within families are generally more intense than those with more distant people; plus they are more easily triggered.
The book can be found here. It is fairly short and posting of any reviews will be much appreciated. Also feel free to come back and comment here.
I’ve updated the earlier version of this ebook slightly and made it available on Amazon!
It is available there now, and starting tomorrow, Sept. 15, it will be available for free download until about Sept. 17 (Saturday). Feel free to get it then and tell friends or otherwise promote it if you like it (or trust you will). After the free period, it will be just $2.99, as it is fairly short at 87 Amazon pages. And you don’t need a special reader of any kind. It can be read on one of them or any computer, tablet or smartphone.
In this book I’ve tried to provide a general guide (or roadmap in the book’s analogy) to the journey of spiritual development and deepening understanding through life. Most people do tend to have identifiable “stages” and sometimes clear transition points as they mature through life and its turning-point situations or “peak experiences”. These general stages have been described in scholarly books and a few popular ones which I reference some in the book. (But you won’t be troubled with footnotes there.) …
I worked to keep it readable and accessible for average young adult or older readers. Yet there is information and ideas of real substance. Things like how to better integrate the often-conflicting perspectives and conclusions of religion and science; how to make some sense of it if you find yourself no longer in sync with all the beliefs of a church or spiritual heritage you’ve long been in. Such situations are trying ones for many people… often very emotional. Having a framework for understanding the world, yourself and God that is both sturdy and flexible is one thing that helps.
A surface glance at news about religion in America could lead one either direction: more fervency and commitment or less. An interesting article on this issue was posted today on the “Five Thirty Eight” blog of famed statistician, Nate Silver. The title is “Religious Diversity May Be Making America Less Religious.”
The key word is “may”. The author recognizes that cause and effect are difficult to discern. However, the pattern seems pretty clear that Americans are gradually becoming less religious. This part isn’t news.
What’s more important than either celebrating or bemoaning this is exploring questions like, “How are religious changes affecting the personal psychology and spirituality of both religious and nonreligious people?” Or, “What may be expected for the future of your church or your denomination?”
These are among the questions I’ve spent most of my life exploring, in both formal and self-directed study, … seeking to find deeper truth for myself and learning how I might best support or guide seekers or people reeling from what is now often called “spiritual abuse”. A few years ago I distilled some of this into a short book. It was shown on this blog until recently but I didn’t otherwise promote it. I’ve decided to put it out as a Kindle book around mid-September. A link will be provided once it’s up and available. In the next few posts, I’ll feature some excerpts or related material, such as the article link and brief comment above.
Today’s excerpt is from the introduction of my Spiritual Growth: Live the Questions, Love the Journey, and relates closely to the findings of the diversity article above:
So doubt is out in the open!
It was never fully hidden but now, for sure, the tendency of religious institutions to quash doubt and keep it under wraps has succumbed to an end-around play. People can connect cross-country and around the world and do so anonymously if they want! This is a big, big help to many. It is only one expression of a broad and accelerating shift in the way religion and spiritual life are viewed and practiced.
To a degree that is scary to some and exhilarating to others, “spirituality” is encroaching on the monopoly religion has held. People are moving around within religions or denominations as well.
In this book we will focus on the American aspect of this, but the changes are worldwide in varying forms. Sometimes changes seem to be going in opposite directions in the Global South and in the more developed North and West as well. I imagine these to be a reflection of stages of development with some reactionary stepping back.
Changes are taking place in contexts that are on different time scales – for groups as well as individuals. Both must be seen together though our focus will be more on individual needs and processes. The crucial part of my own questioning and revising my faith happened when the Internet was little known or used. But, hey… I am now thrilled to have it as a means of interacting, researching, and finding out what others think. It may prove to be the most significant tool, with its related technologies like smartphones, for the spread of spiritual information and interaction… far more versatile than the printing press! (Don’t forget, the “new technology” of the printing press was a key part of getting the Bible to the masses five centuries ago.)
So what kinds of problems go with religious or spiritual doubt? What are yours?
I just don’t get it! Well, sort of, but not really. See, I was an Evangelical for all my childhood and many adult years. So I realize how strong the Republican ties and the suspicion or fear of “liberals”, and especially of both Clintons, can be.
I was surrounded and, though I never was anywhere near this attitude myself, I understood the reasoning for things like celebrating the “virgin birth” of Ronald Reagan. Again, sort of. But when it comes to Donald Trump, we’re in entirely new territory. I mean, the man has virtually no redeeming social value, let alone spiritual. And, through a lens of “Christian values” or “family values”, what can anyone see in him and his prospective presidency that would recommend him? (Not to even figure in all the down-side risks.)
None-the-less, a recent Pew Research study found that a strong majority of white Evangelicals support Trump. Now, of course, a similar strong majority of black “Evangelicals” (those theologically aligned with broader Evangelicalism, though often not classified with white Evangelicals, as in this survey) are for Clinton. This suggests that something other than religious beliefs is driving this split… and it may well have a lot to do with race.
However, I do think other factors are involved as well. I’ll not speculate on them for now. But I’d be very interested in readers’ thoughts on some of the factors driving so many Evangelicals to a choice I’d say is clearly against principles they supposedly believe in. Not that they have to therefore support Clinton… they have other options.
What do you think? I’d like to deepen my insights on this.
Wow! What an accomplishment Jesus’ Abba is! Not just a summation of the life-work of a great 90 year-old theologian. It’s also a guide for devoted, activist Christians, and an appeal to those rejecting a God who wouldn’t be recognized by Jesus.
I struggled with how to characterize this book, as it doesn’t closely fit any of the usual categories of similar non-fiction, whether theology and ethics, Christian living, advice for leaders, etc. It does seem to cross several subject-area and genre boundaries, so I will merely stick with the statement above.
In John Cobb’s usual manner, he drives right to the foundations: “We are called to worship one God, the God of the Bible.” (xiii of Preface) This is standard fare for traditionalists but may startle some progressives. And how do we know this God? Through the Bible itself: “It needs to be studied with all the critical tools that we use when studying other great literature. When this is done honestly and well, I have long believed, we find that the Bible is the greatest literary achievement of the human race and that keeping its wisdom alive is a matter of great importance.” (xii)
And its wisdom, for Cobb, is not just the liberal ideals that fit well in a strictly rationalist modern worldview dominated by atheistic science. He admits to affiliating, generally, with the Christian liberal tradition while he is also “distressed with the direction it has taken… it has become harmless. But… it has little to offer.” (xiii)
In this fairly short book, Cobb then proceeds to show how God, particularly as revealed by Jesus, is “personal” and meaningful to him and can be to both those of more traditional leanings and to liberals or progressives. Knowing God this way is not just for our personal satisfaction but to inspire and lead Christians to “…the action required to save humanity from utter catastrophe.” (xiii)
The Great Importance of this Book
All this in just the preface, which should probably be titled “Why this Book is Incredibly Important”. Here Cobb gives powerful summaries of the six chapters of the book. At the end he tackles the question of whether his understanding of Jesus’ Abba (Father or “Papa”) might be a step back in “appreciating other great wisdom traditions”, the dialog among faiths. If we love God as Jesus’ Abba, just the opposite, he says.
Jesus’ Abba is clearly intended for a general audience although there is a lifetime of scholarship slipped between its covers. It lacks both footnotes and a bibliography. Therefore academics may be displeased. But I see this as an effort to keep the focus on the point of the book: Understanding and following God the way Jesus did. Accordingly, the effort to direct it to Christians of all types and levels of knowledge as well as to unbelievers.
King or Father?
So how does Jesus seem to understand the God he is referred to in the intimate familial terms of his day? From both Hebrew Scripture and later Christian theology, we might expect him to address God as King or sovereign in some form. But that, Cobb shows us, is the result of Christians quickly using the biblical concept of the kingdom of God to focus on God as its ruler, an all-powerful King. Going further, he dissects the New Testament Greek phrase, basiliea theou (kingdom of God): it could have implied a political region and ruler. “But if God is like a father, then his region or land will not be a kingdom. We might describe a father’s basiliea better as the family estate.” (p. 2)
Merely an academic distinction? Cobb doesn’t think so and he supports his point well. But is there a better English translation (and way of thinking) than “kingdom of God” and its being “at hand”? Given the lack of a precise term, he says his “… proposal is ‘commonwealth’. Jesus’ message is that the ‘divine commonwealth is at hand.’ Everyone should reverse directions and join in this new possibility. There is no reason to think of the God whose basiliea this is, as a monarch!” (p. 2)
While I was raised and spent many adult years in Evangelical circles, I’ve been largely aligned with progressives for several years now. So “commonwealth of God” was not new to me. But never before reading this book had the term or concept seemed so warm and inclusive and made such good sense to me.
An emphasis on God as Father and head of a familial community makes the effort to de-gender our language about God tougher. Cobb addresses this, self-consciously choosing to “re-gender” (his term) God in the book, despite his long efforts in the other direction. But he reminds us of the strongly feminine aspects of Jesus’ Abba.
So goes Cobb’s treatment of the various issues about Jesus and God that often divide or provoke conflict: What was Jesus’ mission? (Why traditionalists and modernists both have trouble with his healing work but needn’t.) What was (or wasn’t) his resurrection? In what sense may Jesus have been Messiah? These are treated briefly with keen insights… briefly so as to maintain focus on how Jesus saw and related to God as Abba.
What Happened to Jesus’ Abba?
This new intimacy with God, coming via Jesus, quickly faded. Cobb jumps ahead from Paul’s churches to medieval times for most of this historical retracement. He keeps it basic and readable, moving quickly to the modern period, which he marks from the development of science as our leading mode of inquiry into life and the nature of reality. Here we find one of the few, and indirect, mentions of process philosophy and its influence, with a specific mention of its architect, Alfred North Whitehead. I note this for those not familiar with Cobb, as he is well known as a key developer of process thinking within Christian theology. Process theology is actually infused throughout the book, though not by name and not generally in technical terms.
Along the way of laying out the big picture issues of God and Science (upper case), the point is made that God is not above-and-beyond nature, occasionally overruling it, but right within it, helping potentials to be reached. “Abba is at work.” (p. 45)
Chapter 3 is “Personal Experience of Abba”, covering the ways most people, perhaps all of us at some time, sense the divine. Leaving aside the “five senses” for a chapter, here the point is inner experience, something not measurable and sometimes difficult to describe. Cobb lets us in on this dimension of his own life. He discusses “companionship” with God as Abba. Then “the call forward”, the ability we have to make choices and thus, progress and find meaning in our lives. In this he appeals, in part, to common sense… to the way we naturally speak and think of actually having choices or “free will”, even if these are often limited and only partially free. Intellectuals and scientists following a strict determinist view are denying any meaning in life. But they seldom press consistency on this very far, the author reminds us…. Even if doubting that we have meaningful choices, we still live as if we do.
Now, does anything guide the direction of the call forward if not a God who pre-determines? Yes, inspiration! Nothing like guidance to record an “infallible Word of God” as in common (mis)conception of the inspiration of biblical authors. Rather, Cobb explains, “If we open ourselves to the call forward and do not resist or question it for some period of time, what happens in and through us will be the realization of the best possibility available moment by moment.” (p.61) This is inspiration – sometimes noticed and dramatic, often not.
I really appreciated the section on healing. Cobb not only accepts that Jesus spent much of his ministry healing others, he believes genuine faith healing continues today, although there is much showmanship and exaggeration now, as there was in reports in Jesus’ day. He lays out the whole-person kind of understanding of health that one would expect from a man steeped in Process thought – the inclusive-of-all-phenomena approach that has guided the formation of Cobb’s understanding of Jesus, God and the Bible.
Cobb wraps up chapter 3 with a nice summary of Western philosophy in relation to the problems of science and faith… in just a few pages. But he invites the reader to skip over this if preferred – continuity will not be disturbed.
Chapter 4 is “Can Science Get Along with Abba?” In a word, “Yes”. But to do so Science must be rid of the reduction of reality to only material objects. (Of course, this “materialism” eliminates God, but it’s more than just that.) Subjects also exist and affect reality. They even do things we think of as “paranormal” or beyond the five senses. A hint at how Cobb answers the Science-and-Abba question is here: “The discovery of a call forward in ourselves suggests that everything that lives is called to live, to live well, and to live better. If the one who calls is God, it is reasonable to think that the one who calls all things is God. And this gentle caller, who lures and does not force, is best understood as Abba. Abba seeks the realization of intrinsic value. This is Abba’s working in us, and it is Abba’s working in all living things….” (p. 100). The summary of the tension in science and faith in this chapter is extremely well done and helpful. Having read several books on this issue, I can think of nothing that expresses better both the problem and the “answer” – the lowering of the sense of conflict. Worth the price of the book in itself.
Chapter 5 moves from the mainly conceptual to the deeply relational, “Does Abba Call for Christian Exclusivism?” In a work, “No.” Rather, God’s call is for “deep pluralism” involving mutual respect and dialog toward understanding, not aimed at converting. Cobb here lays out both the shared-belief foundations and a roadmap of processes for this. He speaks about both the Abrahamic traditions and the eastern ones, particularly Buddhism. I happen to know that for decades he and others with similar perspectives have pursued dialog with Buddhists and, more recently, with the tradition of Confucius and others in China. (The Chinese happen to be quite open although they must be careful in the use of God language.) Cobb includes some very positive remarks about contributions Christians and other Westerners can receive from “indigenous wisdom” as well.
The final chapter brings us to our uncertain, potentially dire future: “A World in Crisis Needs Abba”. Cobb affirms the progress of history, though not in the typical end-of-history (eschatology) view of Christendom. Rather, here is the positive sense of mission (being “missional”), reflecting Jesus’ view of the intentions of his Abba.
I view the section in this chapter, “Abba’s Power and Ours”, as the pivotal concept of the entire book. Clarifying his belief that God’s power is persuasive rather than coercive in any way, Cobb says that such power is empowering and liberating. It expands rather than limits human choices. Here we come to an insight into the reason for the book’s negatively-framed subtitle: “The God Who Has Not Failed”. “… God is always confronted by a world which, to a very large extent, determines its own future. Attributing control to ‘God’ has had terrible consequences. The controlling God has failed.” (p. 139)
How does Abba’s empowerment come? In what forms and processes? Much of that involves communities and “communities of communities”. Cobb spends several pages on this, including another personal vignette into a unique community of the latter part of his own life. And he tackles the largest of communities, the nations of the world, as well. Here is no simplistic globalism nor naïve liberalism, although one could fairly say philosophies of this general nature are involved. A naïve kind of conservatism might suspect Cobb of perspectives he does not have. For example, on higher education he hopes we can “… abandon the absurdity of value-free scholarship and enlist our universities in serving a desperately needful world and in preparing students to do so as well.” (p. 154) In this final section, he lays out several hopes for world cooperation and compassionate, sensible action – things I consider feasible. Having already applauded the posture and work of Pope Francis, and writing just after his impactful encyclical of 2015, Cobb, a life-long Protestant, wraps up saying that if some of this is achieved, more might join in celebrating Francis’ work and “… just perhaps, more people will join him in the worship of Abba.” (p. 154)
In a brief postscript, Dr. Cobb reminds us he has not and cannot prove the existence of Abba, but that “belief in Abba makes a lot of sense today.” (pp. 155,6). It is a more reasonable, sensible and satisfying option than accepting the modern worldview and leaving God and the Bible aside entirely. And there are many things, including some beliefs about God that we can disprove, such as a God who is both all-powerful and all-beneficent. He says, “The basic argument of this book is that, although many ideas associated with God and Christian faith have been disproved, Jesus’ teaching about Abba has not…. I commend a faithfulness to Jesus that shares Jesus’ confidence in the love and empowering power of Abba.” (pp. 156,7) Amen.
Don’t let my summation suffice. Get this book and read it! You will be stretched… and grown!